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A Site Embracing Great Ci

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A Site Embracing Great Civilization----Xanadu

 

The site of Xnandu is straddling the Plain Blue Banner and Duolun Country of Xilingol League, Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region of the People’s Republic of <st1:country-region w:st="on">China. Xanadu was founded in 1259 by Kublai Khan, Genghis Khan’s grandson, who in 1260, ascended to the Khanate here and renamed the country Da Yuan (the Great Yuan), thus inaugurated the Yuan Dynasty’s rule for near a hundred years.  Xanadu was severely damaged by the uprising of the Hongjin Peasant Army in the year of 1358, one of the declining years of the Yuan Dynasty. In 1368, the city was conquered by the Ming Army and was literally burnt down to the ground. The coordinate of the Site of Xanadu pursuing the inscription of the World Heritage List situates at N 42 21 28.80, E 116 11 6.46. The Site of Xanadu is a city site which both uprose from and dwindled away as a result of the confliction between the nomadic culture and the agricultural culture and has left a wide-spreading and far-reaching influence on the two culture systems in return. Xanadu is a capital city which had influenced the process of World’s civilization for a hundred years; hence a site embracing great civilization. The whole heritage of Xanadu Site is composed of four parts: site of city (about 18 km2), tomb complex (about 5 km2) as well as natural and human environment which covers an area of 1,759 km2. The city site consists of royal city, imperial city, outer city, Guanxiang areas, Tiefangan drainage and so on. Typical remains of the site are city walls, gates, roads, moats, flood control drainage and the foundations of palaces, temples, shops, dwellings, warehouses and all kinds of buildings on a large scale. The tomb complex spread out in the surrounding areas of the city site, including the Zhenzishan tomb complex, which is a representative of Han family tombs, and the Yikeshu tomb complex, which is a representative of ordinary Mongols’. They are evidences which demonstrated the fact that both Mongolian and Han people had ever lived in Xanadu. The natural environment, comprising such natural elements which are relevant to the selection of the city site as Upper Capital River, Longgang Mountain, Jinlianchuan Grassland and the unique landscapes which reflect the geographic features of the city such as sandy land, wetlands, forest steppe and typical grassland, coupled with the human environment which  consists of the well preserved Mongolian traditional culture in the location of the site and the early worship of mountains in the nomadic nationalities embodied by Oboo scattering at the top of mountains witnesses the prosperity of Xanadu as a capital of the Yuan Dynasty and its societal and cultural changes.

   The city plan of the Site of Xanadu can be divided into city areas (including royal city, imperial city and outer city), Guanxiang areas and Tiefangan drainage. The sites and remains cover an area of nearly 1,800 hectares. The royal city, the centre of the Site of Xanadu, is in a rectangular shape approximatively, with 542 meters in width from the east to west and 605 meters in length from south to north. and covers an area of 32 hectares. The royal is the emperor’s palace, and the mainly palaces and the gardens are located here, its overall distribution make up the L- shape with the imperial city. The imperial city is the main part of the Site of Xanadu, 1410 meters in width from the east to west, and 1400 meters in length from south to north, it is nearly the square in shape, and covers an area of 164 hectares. The outer city is located in the west and the north part of the imperial city and is expanded built, the west and the north wall is 2,220 meters in length, the east wall is 815 meters in length , and the south wall is 820 meters in length, which covers an areas of 288 hectares. The outer city is wholly L-shaped, and its east wall and south wall is connected with the east wall and south wall of imperial city, which made the site of Xanadu presents an complete square in shape.

Guan Xiang is located in the outer part of the outer city, it is unfolded to the east, south, west and the north above 2,000 meters, the scope is more widely, and the visible of the ruins in the earth of the surface covers an area is above 1220 hectares in total. The life function of the Xanadu is divided in the east, west, south, and the north part of Guang Xiang. And the quantity of the construction remains and the criss-crossed streets are best preserved.

The famous scientist Guo Shou Jing designed the Tie Fan Canal to prevent the flood.

Aobao, it is the originated from the Mongolian language meaning stones, and its also called the E Bo in Chinese literature, it is one of the most universal and the oldest technique stones, which is used to the road signs, distinct the boundary, or to memory and the ritual activities and so on. Adam, it is originated from the Mongolian language meaning entertainment or game. It is the traditional mass rally of Mongol people. Adam originated was the sports activities after the worship Ao Bao, it is an artistic and sports events of Mongol people experiencing in their long nomadic life and create and spread, which is very unique and owns the strong ethnic colors.

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